Modern automobiles not only require high safety and comfort but also have the characteristics of high speed and lightweight. The adoption of a large number of lightweight structures places higher demands on automotive designers. For example, the front suspension of an automobile is an assembly that is very sensitive to the deformation of the force. The micro-displacement often has a great influence on the driving performance of the car. Therefore, the effect caused by the deformed component should be considered in the structural analysis.
In addition, various rubber components have a large resistance and can effectively absorb various vibrations. Therefore, automotive rubber components have a great influence on the performance of automobiles. It is pointed out that modern automobiles are equipped with rubber damping elements between the coupling parts of the suspension guide mechanism, the damper, and between the sub-frame and the suspension, which almost "separate" the wheel from the body with the automotive rubber components. The main reasons are:
1. The elastic modulus of rubber is smaller than that of metal, and the shock absorbing effect is remarkable;
2. The shape of the automotive rubber components is not limited, and the rigidity in each direction can be freely selected within a certain range, and it is relatively easy to change and can bear the multidirectional load;
3. Using the resistance generated by the internal friction can absorb shock and impact energy well, and has two functions of spring and resistance;
4.Low cost and simple structure;
5. It is easily bonded to the metal, greatly simplifying the fixing and supporting structure and reducing the overall quality of the suspension;
6. By utilizing the elastic deformation of the rubber, the machining accuracy between the coupling members can be reduced, and the manufacturing cost is lowered. The disadvantage of the rubber member is that its performance is unstable, and it is easy to age compared with the metal spring. They also pointed out that rubber parts can be considered as a kind of "spring" when studying the static characteristics of the suspension. However, this spring has special nonlinear mechanical properties, and the stiffness is also affected by factors such as the formulation temperature and the pre-tightening force. It has a certain dispersion and the mechanical properties are different in different directions. In addition, rubber parts are also largely used on the body and in the interior of automobiles. The presence of rubber parts greatly improves the ride comfort and practicality of the automobiles. The above is a summary of the available data in China.
In general, the research on the influence of rubber parts on the performance of automobiles is just getting started, and the application of rubber parts in automobiles is more and more, and different new rubber materials are constantly available, which is very important for the research.